The Apalachicola Band of Creek Indians became a federal tribe under the Additional Article of the 1823,Treaty with the Florida Indians. Six chiefs from among the thirty-two Florida Indian leaders were rewarded with tribal status and a 100 mile reservation in Northwest Florida as friendly allies of the Americans during the Patriot Revolution, War of 1812, the Creek War 1813, and the First Seminole War in 1820. The Apalachicola Reservation was located along the Apalachicola River and upward confluence with the Flint and Chattahoochee Rivers. US negotiators renamed the tribe Apalachicola Band of Creek Indians after the River site location of the reservation. Six original towns made up the Band and were headed by Chiefs, Neamathla, Phillip Emartlar, Econchatti Micco, Mulatto King, Cochrane, and John Blount.
Neamathla Miccosukee Fowltown Chief was elected by the Indians to serve as principle chief but refused to follow orders of Florida Governor and Head Indian Agent, William DuVal. Neamatla's independence resulted in DuVal's revoval of Neamathla as Chief and replacement appointment of John Hicks AKA Tokose Ematla. Chief Hicks' Band was located near Madison Florida and he, too, refused to join his followers with the Apalacicola Band. Aware of the difficulties he faced, Hicks moved with his Band South and joined the Seminole at Okeumple in 1826 -1827. Colonel Arbuckle filled the vacancy by appointing Chief John Blount as Principle Chief of the Apalacicola. Blount was know for his loyalty to the Americans and close friendship with Andrew Jackson as his personal spy. Chief Blount rose to the rank of Colonel under Jackson's command in the First Seminole War and received a personal Silver Medal from Jackson for is services rendered.
Chief Blount was the first Apalachicola Band Chief to agree to remove West following the 1830 Indian Removal Act. Chief Cocrane, Blount's broter-in-law, died in 1832 and Blount appointed Cochrane's son, Davy Elliott (Osia Hajo) Chief of Spanewadka. Blount and Davy sold their section of the Apalachicola Reservation known as Blountstown and Spanewadka in the 1832 Treaty with the Apalachicola Band of Creek Indians. The Treaty title is misleading since Blount and Davy were the only two Chiefs who were party to the negotations held at Governor DuVal's home in Tallahassee, Florida. Acting Governor Westcott took the first Apalachicola Census in May of 1833. This town by town census with informative notes is located in the American State Papers and should be visited for further information.
President Andrew Jackson had approved the emigration of Chiefs Blount and Davy to Texas but Blount refused to leave Florida until the Apalachicola boys that were taken to the Choctaw Academy in Kentucky in 1831 were returned home to emigrate with their families. Blount refused to believe reports that his son Billy had died of Cholera and tat the tribe should be off to Texas. That news increased his resolve to remain until all the Apalachicola students were returned home. Blounts stubborn approach created difficulties for the Band including withholding money and supplies to feed the people. Everything attempted failed and the War Department and Baptist educators finally decided to release the boys and get Blount and Davy off to Texas. The departure began in mid March 1834.
New Orleans was the first stop as Blount and Davy were ordered to receive the bulk of their treaty money at the Bank of New Orleans. With that money in hand and abandoned by the Indian Agent and Government paid interpreter, Blount and Davy set out to get supplies for the remainder of the trip. Outside the Bank the two were met by the High Sheriff on spurious charges of absconding with stolen funds and placed in Jail. It was April 7, 1834. In the Hearing, Blount learned he would have to pay a fine equal to all the money he had in hand plus the value of two of his Negro slaves, Cujo and Bob. He paid the price for freedom. Without federal intervention or money, Blount and Davy gathered the residue of followers and walked across the Lousiana Plaqumine crossing the Red River into Texas. Blount managed to get the remaining forty or less people near his Uncle Red Shoes' Koasati village near the Trinity River and died shortly after arrival.
Blounts nephew, Billy Blount and his son William John (Nogouse) Blount became joint tribal chiefs holding the small Band together througout the Civil War.William John AKA Jim, died shortly after the Civil War and Billy died of cholera in Polk County Texas about 1878. All the old Indian Graves including that of Chief John Blount were destroyed and bodies swept into the Gulf of Mexico when the US Corps of Engineers widened the East Fork of the Trinity to create Lake Livingston.
Texas Government and Historians never used the Treaty name Apalachicola Band of Creek Indians with regard to Chief Blount's Band. From arrival in Texas they were known as Blount Indians, Texas Creeks, and Pakana Muskogees. The Blount Negros who followed Wildcat into Mexico became known as Muscogos. Misconceptions about the origin of the Blount Indians led to incorrectly assuming they merged with the Alabama and Coushatta. However, they survived as an independent entity to the present day. Contemporary membership is small at 200 individuals. The current Tribal Chief is Mary Sixwomen Blount.
Mary Sixwomen Blount, Principle Chief